Bakhia work is also known “Bakhia” or shadow work. Here the work is done from the back, the stitches completely covering the design in Herringbone style. The shadow of the thread is seen through the cloth on the front side. To give a richer appearance, the designs are produced with tiny backstitches on the right side over the shadow. A similar effect is created by cutting out tiny flowers and leaves in the same material as the basic fabric and then applying them on the back side. The work is done so dexterously that the turned in edges of the cut pieces are scarcely visible from the front of the work.
Two types of Bakhia work.
(A) Ulta Bakhia: The buoys lie on the converse of the fabric underneath the theme. The straightforward muslin gets to be murky and gives a delightful impact of light and shade.
(B) Sidha Bakhia: Satin join with confusing of individual strings. The buoys of string lie on the surface of the fabric. This is utilized to fill the structures and there is no light or shade impact.
The word chikan is most likely derived from the Persian word `chikin’ or `chikeen’ which implies a sort of weaved fabric. This workmanship has its own particular imperial essentialness rising above from Mughal Period to the time of Oudh Nawabs later sprouting as a design driven type of needle art perceived world over today. It is polished just in Lucknow and not recreated world over.
It has 32 stitches on comforts of Chikankari in different outlines done significantly by ladies artisans. Fastens include Tepchi, Bakhiya, Murri, Katai, Phanda, Jaali, Hath Kati, Pechni, Ghas Patti , Keel kangan and so on . No single gathering of artisans ace more than 4 – 5 fastens, thus it needs to move to different gathering of artisans to finish an item. The high fashion society of today has propelled the famous style planners all around, to meld the specialty of Zardozi, Kamdani, Aari with chikan dress to be valued by exceptionally refined aesthetic tastes. This is the main specialty sold after thorough various washes precluding any shrinkage and shading dying.
The patterns and effects created depend on the stitches and the thicknesses of the strings utilized. A portion of the fastens incorporate backstitch, chain line and hemstitch. The outcome is an open work design, jali (trim) or shadow-work. Regularly the embroiderer makes network like segments by utilizing a needle to separate strings in the ground fabric, and after that working around the spaces.
There are 32 stitches in chikankari embroidery.
12) Ghaas Patti
13) Chana Patti
27) Dhaniya Patti
29) Ulti Bakhia
32) Keel Kanga.
Indian Chikan work fundamentally comprises of various procedures, in particular cutting, sewing and printing, weaving, washing and wrapping up. Cutting and sewing are finished by the same individual. At that point, printing is embraced with wooden pieces dunked in color. After this, weaving is done, as a rule by ladies. The last stride in the Chikankari weaving work is washing and completing, which may take from 10 to 12 days and includes fading, corrosive treatment, solidifying and pressing. The most well-known theme utilized as a part of Chikan Kari work of Lucknow is that of creepers. Botanical themes, which are utilized either all through the article of clothing or in corners, incorporate jasmine, rose, blossoming stems, lotus, and so on.
The lines utilized as a part of Chikan Kari work of Lucknow are essentially of three classifications, specifically.
- Flat Stitches (Subtle lines that stay near the fabric)
- Embossed Stitches (they give a grainy appearance)
- Jali Work (Created by string pressure, it gives a fragile net impact)
The strategy of formation of a Chikan work is known as Chikankari. Chikan is a sensitive and shrewdly done hand weaving on an assortment of material fabric like muslin, silk, chiffon, organza, net, and so forth. White string is weaved on cool, pastel shades of light muslin and cotton pieces of clothing. These days chikan weaving is likewise finished with shaded and silk strings in hues to meet the design patterns and stay up with the latest. Lucknow is the heart of the chikankari business today and the assortment is known as Lucknawi chikan.
Chikan work in the late times has adjusted extra embellishments like Mukaish, Kamdani, Badla, Kamdani, sequin, globule and mirror work, which gives it a rich look. Chikan weaving is for the most part done on fabrics like cotton, semi-Georgette, immaculate Georgette, crepe, chiffon, silk and whatever other fabric which is light and which highlights the weaving. The fabric can’t be too thick or hard, else the weaving needle won’t penetrate it.
The piece starts with one or more examples obstructs that are utilized to square print an example on the ground fabric. The embroiderer fastens the example, and the completed piece is precisely washed to evacuate all hints of the printed pattern.
The procedure of chikankari incorporates taking after strides:
- Piece printing
- Washing and finishing
In chikankari work, the needle is held in the right hand while embedding it into the fabric, the left hand backings and controls the string so that the join take the right shape. In traditional chikan no frames were used (however they are utilized now)”;” the part of the material to be weaved is put over the forefinger of the left hand, bolstered by whatever is left of the fingers, leaving the thumb free. The needle is pulled far from the embroiderer who begins from the closest end and completed at the most distant end.
There is an order and strategy in the use of the join. The darn fasten is chipped away at harsh cotton fabric to fill precise plans and to cover the surface of the fabric, while glossy silk sewing is done only on fragile fabrics like silk, muslin, or material. In chikan some fastens are worked from the wrong side of the fabric, while others are worked from the right side. It is however one of a kind in its order in as much as join assigned for a specific object are utilized just for that reason – they are not supplanted by different stitches. For instance, the chain line (zanjeera) might be utilized for the last framework of a leaf, petal, or stem.
Diverse pros work with various sorts of lines. For instance, open work or jaali is not done by embroiderers who do the filling work – every laborer finishes his/her bit and the fabric is then sent to the following embroiderer. The wages for every employment are settled independently.
Chikan embroidery has a collection of around 40 fastens of which around 30 are as yet being utilized. These can be comprehensively isolated into 3 heads – flat stitches, raised and embossed stitches, and the open trellis-like jaali work. Some of these have reciprocals in different embroideries, the rest are controls that make them unmistakable and one of a kind. They cover all the weaving lines of the nation and have intriguing and elucidating names.
Lucknow, in Uttar Pradesh, was and is the focal point of chikan embroidery, famous for its immortal beauty and its gossamer delicacy, an aptitude over 200 years of age – misused, commercialism however not dead. Truth be told, the specialty is alive and attempting to recapture some of its previous magnificence and tastefulness. An investigation of the cause of chikan uncovers that this type of weaving had come to India from Persia with Noor Jehan, the ruler of the Mughal Emperor Jehangir. The word chikan is a subordinate from the Persian word “chikaan” which means drapery. What we know is that chikankari came to Oudh when Mughal power declined in Bengal and the artisans moved to the Oudh durbars, looking for work and support.
Chikan embroidery is done on fine cotton fabric. The pieces of clothing are initially sewed and afterward weaved, though skirts, saris, and table material are initially weaved and afterward wrapped up. The outline to be weaved is imprinted on the fabric with wooden squares, utilizing criminal hues, which are ordinarily made by blending a paste and indigo with water. For additional fine plans, metal squares are now and then utilized.